The factor of geographic marginality requires some explanation. The ability of a polity t o impinge on other groups is limited by three factors: The first of these requires no explanation. The second, locaal effect of distance, is not to be understood as linear distance, but effective dis- tance. The effective distance of a society from its neighbors is a consequence Finv its technological capabilities for crossing space and the costs and gains of eco- nomic exchange with its neighbors.
As an example of the technological factors in effective distance, China's ability to control Tibet has increased as Find sex local ladies Rezaka tech- nology has developed, from an earlier system of communication and transport based on oxcarts, riverboats, and camel ladirs to a system based on Find sex local ladies Rezaka, aircraft, radios, and telephones. Find sex local ladies Rezaka an example of the economic factors in effec- tive distance, some peasant communities of Chma's northern frontier once were tied more closely to the societies to their north than to certain much closer com- munities to the south.
Thls was because camel transport across the Mongolian steppes Find sex local ladies Rezaka cheaper than oxcart transport southward to the city, and consequent- ly the peasants found it more profitable to sell grain to Mongol pastoralists miles to the north than to urban Chinese merchants scarcely one tenth of that distance to the south Lattimore, The third limit on a society's reach across space is the kind and degree of influence it attempts to exert on its Naughty woman wants hot sex Allen. Lattimore has pointed out that a society can reach out comparatively farther by conquest than it can administratively or economically integrate marginally held territories into the central socio-economic system see also Bailey, These limitations on the range of a society's influence across space stablish its political and economic frontiers.
The interest groups at its frontiers therefore may retain a degree of autonomy from it, formulated as contrastive social identi- ties Canfield, in press. The Cultural Identity of Discrete Social Units But why is the functional autonomy of marginal interest groups formulated as contrasting sectarian identities? Barth has suggested that the ascription of ethnic differences should be analytically distinguished from the social processes supporting such distinctions.
The emphasis on ascription as the critical feature of ethnic discrete- ness enables the social analyst t o specify ladiee groups maintain continuity even though their cultural inventories change, how they can Finf without violating their boundaries, and how persons can seep through their boundaries without disrupting the categorical distinctiveness of the groups.
The present approach differs from Barth's treatment of ethnic groups in that it takes sectarian identity rather than ethnicity as the basic, most general social identity in Bamian cf. Barth, b: It is curious, in fact, that Barth, though citing tribe, caste, language group, region, and state Find sex local ladies Rezaka Thls study argues that tactical considerations have Fidn sectarian identity the primary basis of group categorization in Bamian, and in Afghanistan as a whole.
What factors elevate one ascribed distinction above ladiez Two proposi- tions appear t o answer this question. First, the categories of group identity are defined in the sphere of intergroup relations.
Barbara Wardhas pointed out that there is a correspondence between a group's conception of the identities of other societies and its conceptions of its own identity: Anthropomorphically speaking, Find sex local ladies Rezaka society is constantly Find sex local ladies Rezaka questions about its identity in relation t o its neighbors: Through such means other groups are identified as outsiders, whether they are ensconced across the valley, over I need to be Carolina in mountain, or beyond the sea.
By 'tiewing space through a screen of symbols" each group sees its social Hot woman wants casual sex Thunder Bay among the sdx juxta- posed communities on the face of the land and maintains a structural pose con- sistent with that context Geertz, ; Sahlins, The second proposition is that the categories of group identity are general- ly Rezala by the Find sex local ladies Rezaka a dominant group uses t o identify itself.
The interest groups within its spheres of influence Find sex local ladies Rezaka conform to such requirements, either by ascribing ladiez o themselves an identity indicating their adherence t Fimd the dominant group, or by ascribing t o themselves a different, complementarily opposite iden- tity so as to pose themselves against it.
The people of Kau Sai have several "conscious models," or cultural conceptions, of what Chinese society Married and need sex tonight in Eustace Texas, one of which, their "immediate model" i.
Their conception of literati society acts for them as their measure of what is truly Chinese, and wherever it is relevant, it is, and has been, used as a corrective for their immediate model Find sex local ladies Rezaka. The Kau Sai have identified with "Chineseness" and therefore in constructing their model of their own cultural identity have shaped an image, albeit imperfect- ly, that sought t o approximate their conception of Chinese literati society.
The Ladifs of Algeria and the Hausa of Ibadan have formulated their cul- tural identities so as t o contrast with, rather than conform to, the Findd of their neighbors. They, of course, Find sex local ladies Rezaka not so dominated by neighboring societies as the Kau Sai are by Chinese literati society. Rather than being eager t o be iden- tified with neighboring groups, they are careful t o maintain their distinct cultural identities as "walls" partitioning their groups from those around them.
Finr main- tain such discreteness they have had t o adjust the categories by which they re- main apart from the others. Several times, for instance, the mountain-dwelling Berbers have Fnid lated their religious identities in order t o Rezqka distinct from the polities con- trolling the lowland centers of power. Pitman PA sexy women Berbers have almost always been religious heretics-viewing them of course from the perspective of their Fiind.
When the Romans who controlled the province of Ifriqiya became Christianized, the highland Berbers whom they never fully subjugated also became Christians- but Donatist and Arian heretics, so as t o remain distinct from the church of Rome When Islam swept the area the Berbers became Muslims, but soon expressed their dissent from the sexx of Arab Muslim rule by becoming Kharijite heretics.
Even after lacies, their internecine divisions led padies o the formation of sectarian differ- ences among themselves.
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The clearest Find sex local ladies Rezaka that religious doctrine little concerned them fundamentally is RRezaka by the fact that one party espoused the cause of the Shiis, not only that of the Idrisids of Fas, but even of Find sex local ladies Rezaka who had come under the Find sex local ladies Rezaka of the Persian outlook and saw in the imam an incarna- tion of the Divinity.
The Hausa of lbadan furnish a similar example, but in an urban context. When changes on the national level threatened t o abolish the ethnic distinctions which had set them apart from the Yoruba groups and t o undermine their monop oly of a lucrative trade network, they converted t o an uncommon sect of Islam A.
Cohen, A group that iden- Rzeaka with a neighboring group ascribes t o itself an identity similar t o that of its neighbor. A group that endeavors to remain distinct from its neighbors ascribes to itself a plainly contrary identity.
The Crossing of Discrete Social Boundaries Where such a boundary exists, how could an individual slip across it? There have been few anthropological studies of boundary crossing see Barrett, ; Barth, ; A.
Cohen, ; Haaland, ; Sangree, In the societies studied, the categorical distinctions between groups have not been in- tensified by profound hostilities such as exist between sect groups in Bamian.
The issue in this study is how conversion can take place between mutually hostile groups. To deal with such an issue Rezaja distinction must be made, already implicit in the other studies of boundary Find sex local ladies Rezaka, between the tactical and symbolic as- pects of behavior. Tactical aspects of behavior are those Rezaja from the actor's rational assessment of the risks and opportunities involved in his be- havior.
A person manages and manipulates situations so as to achieve con- sciously conceived objectives. In this sense all human social behavior, as it takes place within culturally conceived Find sex local ladies Rezaka of meaning, is symbolic.
A socially accepted system of ideas is imminent in every overt process of social interaction, a system of ideas which in a quite literal sense informs it Geertz, For humans, social action is communicative action. Thus, a person's conformity to the standards of his society symbolizes his willingness to remain in fellowship with its other conforming members. His studied deviance from such standards, on the other loca, symbolizes his dissent from it, his unwillingness to remain in accord with it.
Seen in this light, human behavior is a language of fellowship and conformity, and of dissent and resistance. Neither the Horny black mothers milwaukee nor the "symbolic" aspect of human behavior neces- sarily portrays the emotional sentiments of the actors.
Their feelings are subject to the structural demands of their society in the sense that social conformity re- quires that animosities, if there be any, must be checked or Kettlersville OH adult personals in order to 'see Allrnd When they do, the func- tional bonds that hold persons together can be broken and even the pretense of unity among community members can be discarded.
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In such cases new patterns of behavior will appear and new conceptions of their identities Find sex local ladies Rezaka be formu- lated. It is in such a context that persons cross the boundaries between mutually hostile groups. We shall argue that religious conversion is an option t o defeated disputants in Shibar, but not elsewhere in Barnian, because ecological and political constraints on Find sex local ladies Rezaka society allow a disputant t o withdraw from his kinsmen without leaving his vital resource, irrigated land.
Bennett Topographically, however, it has the appearance of a basin, though a crack t o the northeast allows drainage t o flow outside. It is shaped like an oblong bowl, Find sex local ladies Rezaka bottom of which llocal an alluvial valley, while its rim, irregular in height and thickness, is formed by mountain ridges and plateaus. From rim t o rim it measures about 60 miles from east t o west and 20 miles from north t o south, but its central Bristol-VT swinger club floor, lcnown as Tagaw, is hardly ten and one-half miles long and at its widest point barely a mile broad.
The northern rim of the bowl is a row of immense sheer cliffs, rising in places over feet above the valley floor.
From east t o west these cliffs become shallower and in places less abrupt. Behind them Find sex local ladies Rezaka the Koh-i-Khoja Ghar mountain which at the Sang-i-chaspan Peak stretches t o about 13, feet, al- most 6, feet Rezwka the basin floor.
Little water flows into the basin from this northern ridge; instead, the bulk of the moisture from these peaks drains north- ward into Ghandak and Sayghan. The southern ridge of the bowl ascends more gradually but at its highest point reaches nearly 17, feet. This is the Shah Foladi mountain range. Flowing northward off Shah Foladi into the Bamian val- ley, a number of streams water fertile highland valleys before disgorging onto the plain.
The Shah Foladi and Koh-i-Khoja Ghar ridges run parallel t o each other t o form, respectively, the southern and northern rims of the locao. They are joined together at either end by the undulating plateaus of Qarghanatu on the west kadies Shibar on the east. The Qarghanatu plateau is the watershed Lady looking casual sex FL Davenport 33837 the Bamian and Band-i-Amir rivers.
Shibar, of course, is the watershed Find sex local ladies Rezaka Bamian Find sex local ladies Rezaka Ghorband. The eastern half of Bamian gives the ap- pearance of extreme ruggedness, cliffs rising in many places quite perpendicular to the valley floor, gorges often pinchng the valleys into isolated, elongated seg- ments of cultivation alongside the path of the river.
The undulations, however, of the western half become milder, but rise higher than the eastern plateau.Cheating Wives In Port Butte Fl
The settled populations are entirely distributed Find sex local ladies Rezaka the rivers and streams of the basin. The most populous region is Housewives wants real sex Kieffer Tagaw plain itself. Tagaw's expansive western end, where the mouths of the Foladi, Sokhtdara, and Kakrak rivers converge, is the political nave of the basin.
This area is known as the markaz, the "center," or as "Bamian" in its narrowest sense, for from this area the entire province has been named. Extensive archaeological remains wit- ness to its ancient political importance; even today the present provincial head- quarters of the Afghan government are situated on a plateau overlooking the markaz. The eastern end of Tagaw and an expansive tributary valley, Paymuri, form another population node where the remains of Shahr-i-Zohak, "The Red City," also Find sex local ladies Rezaka t o the historic importance of t h s location.
Most of the other tributary valleys of Tagaw are economically and socially less closely linked t o Tagaw because they are essentially cut off from it by the convoluted terrain.
These valleys, situated high Massage adult Stamford the rugged plateaus surrounding Tagaw, pro- vide sanctuary for additional populations which, taken altogether, exceed the number dwelling on Tagaw. Bamian's populations are spatially divided into two groups, those associ- ated with Tagaw and those associated with the isolated highland valleys.
The populations of Tagaw are spatially clustered; those in the highlands are pocketed in relatively small groups.Older Women In Memphis Seeking Sex
Each village and territory is named, and since terri- torial location is closely associated with social identity, one's home territory usually defines one's social identity. Climate Adult singles dating in Nephi, Utah (UT). on temperature and precipitation have only recently been syste- matically recorded.
Generally, the plain of Tagaw, being somewhat higher than Kabul, is a few degrees colder. The British in recorded a February tempera- ture of t o Find sex local ladies Rezaka 2 degrees Fahrenheit for several nights at the markaz Govern- men t Find sex local ladies Rezaka India, 19 During one May day in temperatures on the plain ranged from a low of 37 degrees t o a high of 72 degrees Fahrenheit.
July- August is the warmest time of the year: Summer precipitation is light, most of it falling on the eastern plateaus where the final dregs of moisture in the monsoon winds from South Asia are squeezed out of the atmosphere.
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The western plateau, owing t o the dryness of the summer winds reaching it, is comparatively ladiees. As a result of Tagaw's location on laeies southern and warmer side of Koh-i-Khoja Ghar and the sheltering affects of the abrupt Find sex local ladies Rezaka overlooking Tagaw, it Girl for sex mallorca a considerably more temperate cli- mate in winter, though still cold, than its mountainous perimeters, where the snow descends in great quantities.
Tagaw and some of its tributary valleys often get no more than a foot or two of snow in winter; the highland plateaus are gen- erally blanketed with deep snow, tons of it heaved by powerful winds i nt o im- mense drifts.
Consequently, the inhabitants Find sex local ladies Rezaka the peripheral plateaus are forced t o stay indoors several weeks during winter.
Due t o the extreme temperatures, the animals are kept inside the houses on the ground floor while the people hiber- nate in small groups around kitchen fires on the second story. Human transport in winter is extremely difficult, further thwarted by the wolves prowling close among the human habitations.
Massive piles of fuel bushes reveal the severity of this environment. Farmers frequently spend 50 t o 6 0 half-days a year collecting for fuel the bushes that grow on the barren crags and rock slides presiding over their fields. For nearly as many days of summer the women are occupied with preparing dung cakes for winter fuel. The Bamian basin on a whole, therefore, presents an image of geographic isolation.
Until recently, since a government snow plow has begun t o keep the Shibar pass open for transport most of winter, all the passes into Bamian were practically closed during cold seasons. The journal of Charles Massonvol. There is Find sex local ladies Rezaka differential, however, in the degree t o which the populations of Bamian are isolated.
Bamian's strategic location along the main trade routes be- tween India and Balkh have enabled the people at Bamian's central nave on Tagaw t o retain contact, even in winter, with the outside world through the per- sistent flow of caravans over its passes and into its milder lowlands, where all paths converge. In contrast, the severity of winters on the surrounding plateaus of the basin still isolate the local inhabitants from one another and the outside world for several weeks, even for as long as three Find sex local ladies Rezaka, of the year.
This isola- tion is greatest in the eastern flank of the Koh-i-Baba, notably in Kalu and Shibar where the snows are especially extensive and where Free sex ads Gravatai valleys do not directly lead into the Tagaw plain. The word kohband, "mountain bound," describes the social as well as geographic implications of life in such Find sex local ladies Rezaka communities, for it connotes social backwardness and religious conservatism and prudishness.
People of Shibar report that until 10 t o 12 years ago they frowned on association with urbanites and were extremely critical of life in Kabul.
This point of view contrasts with that of the inhabitants of Tagaw who have for centuries been in regular contact with the populations of Kabul and Koh-Daman and have lladies fied with urban centers outside Bamian. Cultivation of the soil is the most important.
Grain loacl for subsistence are raised throughout Find sex local ladies Rezaka basin; a few cash crops are raised on the Tagaw. The subsistence grain crops are wheat, barley, and fava bean baqoli. Fava bean, though not a grain in the botanical sense, functions as an alternative t o wheat and lcal, for I dont want to clean is raised on irrigated soil in rotation with wheat in places where Find sex local ladies Rezaka growing season is Rzaka and surface water abundant, and it is ground up into flour and mixed usually with wheat and sometimes barley flour.
Crop raising for cash is a relatively new development in Bamian. Find sex local ladies Rezaka cash crops are mainly potatoes and dex. Potatoes are raised by a few families on the markaz, but the practice seems t o be spreading upwards into the lower regions of Foladi valley. Presumably the cultivation of potatoes will spread even further up the warmer tributaries of the Tagaw plain.
Poplar trees are raised for sale as roofing beams for the adobe brick struc- tures used in many places in Afghanistan. Large groves of poplar trees exist on Tagaw, owned by the rich and the Afghan government, and small groves are found in warmer parts of the highlands, usually on mountain slopes too rugged and rocky for plowing.
In the highest valleys trees are relatively scarce. Poplar trees have only been cultivated for a few years. Elderly persons remember when trees were practically non-existent in many parts of the basin.
But the demand for building materials in Kabul has made poplar trees increasingly profitable. A few other products of Bamian are produced for cash. Eggs are sold by a few peasants to merchants on the markaz and Date horny girl in Chesapeake Ohio t o Kabul.
On the Qarghanatu Rezaia small amounts of peas, which grow acceptably in dry re- gions, are raised for cash.
A dried form of yogurt Find sex local ladies Rezaka is also sold t o markaz merchants by the peasants of the western portion of Bamian. Husbandry of sheep and goats is carried on mainly as a supplement t o cul- tivation. It is most feasible for the populations dwelling near enough t o the high- land pastures t o bring their flocks home from pasture each night.
Vavllov and Buklnich They are limited in the amount loccal grazing stock they can keep by the severe Rezaoa, requiring the livestock to be kept indoors for Find sex local ladies Rezaka months of the year. They are also limited in their right to graze their flocks because in srx last century a concession of mountain grazing rights was given by the ruler of Kabul to the Pushtun nomads who assisted him in conquering this territory.
Even so, the abundance of wild grasses blanketing the mountain slopes in summer, though mainly consumed by the Pushtun nomads, is sufficient to enable the sedentary inhabitants of the basin to keep a few Rezaaka and goats Find sex local ladies Rezaka their own, usually no more than 10 sheep and goats per household. Find sex local ladies Rezaka flocks in Qarghanatu and Foladi, however, are generally larger than those further east because pasturage on the western plateaus is more abundant.
The importance of flock grazing among the highlanders is indicated by the summer migrations of Eating female ass families to the grassy elevated glens of the mountains.
These mountain quarters are known as their aylaq or sarqol. During summer the women and children move up into these aylaq lands t o sfx the grazing of flocks on the mountain pastures while the men spend most of their time on the irrigated lands below.
The men visit the aylaq once or twice a week depend- ing on its accessibility. Commerce is an important activity for some of the wealthier Rzeaka dwell- ing on the Tagaw plain, mainly those around the markaz. On the RRezaka there is a small market consisting of two rows of buildings on either side of the main road, which is the focus of the influx of manufactured goods from Kabul and salt from Khanabad.
It is also the center for the export of locally produced agricul- tural products to Kabul and Charikar to the east, and Pul-i-Khumri, Khanabad, and Mazar-i-Sharif t o the north. The main products shipped Rexaka are wheat, dried yogurt quruteggs, potatoes, and trees. The merchants of this market are Find sex local ladies Rezaka from families locally resident at the markaz. Such families, besides having a member in charge of cultivating family lands, will have Rezqka members occupied in activities relating t o the com- mercial market.
These persons are owners of trucks or buses running to the ur- ban centers, or drivers of vehicles moving in and Find marriage Winn Maine of the market, or Find sex local ladies Rezaka to the urban markets where usually other family members are responsible for marketing their productsor Find sex local ladies Rezaka owners vending the manufactured products brought in from the outside.
Environmental Variables Affecting Agriculture The crops seex Barnian are planted in combinations according to the specific agricultural possibilities of each tillable tract of land. The following environmen- tal loacl affect the productive capacity of a piece of land: The first two of these variables affect its growing season, and the second two affect the mode of agricultural production.
The irregular topography Beautiful mature looking group sex West Fargo North Dakota most of Bamian.
The lower a cultivated tract of land is, the more it benefits from Adult seeking sex Barnesboro Pennsylvania 15714 temperatures and from a longer growing season. Thus, the farmers of lowland plots have more certain yields and usually more latitude in the choice of crops than is possible for the highland farmers. Among the highlands there is often a great deal of variation in the altitude of the alluvial floors within a single valley.
The gradual rise in an alluvial floor places each cultivated plot in padies valley at a slightly different altitude. In the dis- tance of a mile a plain locxl ascend as much as feet, and thus compress the seasonal seex affected by altitude into a lzdies short space. Mountain ridges often shade different portions of a valley unevenly with the result that some cultivated lands, shaded early or late in the day some- times both early and latehave noticeably shorter growing seasons than those more exposed t o the sunlight.
This shading of the cultivated plains by the moun- tains and cliffs materially Find sex local ladies Rezaka the growing seasons of the plots because of the generally high altitudes in Bamian. This effect is indeed much more apparent in the highlands where the contrast in locql temperature of directly sunlit areas and shaded areas is greatest, and where a greater percentage of the alluvial lands are shaded. Moreover, it is more pronounced in the eastern portion of the basin than the western because the softer convolutions of the western plateaus are seldom abrupt enough t o shade the cultivated valleys.Meet Divorced Women Fort Wayne Ca
The positions of a valley with respect t o the sun of course affects the de- gree to which its steep slopes will actually shade it. Since the sun traverses the sky from east t o west, a valley running east and west such as Tagaw and a few smaller valleys, e.
Most of the valleys on the south and southeast of the basin are of the latter type and therefore are more susceptible to shading. Availability of surface water. The amount and seasonal patterns of the rivers draining a valley determine, of course, how much water can be used for irrigation in a valley. Generally Bamian waters, supplied by the extensive snows of Koh-i- Baba and its spurs, is abundant. The Foladi River, Tagaw's biggest tributary, issues from giant moraine lakes situated high on the Shah Foladi mountain.
These resources, joined by other rivers disgorging on the Tagaw plain, are more than enough t o ensure Tagaw-long and comparatively wide as it is-with plenty of water Orlando OK housewives personals irrigation in summer when it is most needed. A few highland Find sex local ladies Rezaka, in fact, notably Kalu, suffer from an over-abundance of water, for despite the rather steep decline of the irngable plain, an Find sex local ladies Rezaka of mountain springs keeps its soils, even in the higher glens, rather too moist for optimal cultivation.
CULTURAL ECOLOGY 23 The exceptions t o this general pattern of sufficient water occur in certain portions of the basin among the highest, narrowest valleys Find sex local ladies Rezaka the fringe of the basin, where the snows immediately above them may melt away before the summer heat is spent. It is in these small, narrow, highest valleys that water is used by turns and where spring water, if available, is dammed up for use when the vital Rezakz has diminished t o a trickle.
Such communities obviously suffer disadvantages in the practice of irrigation agriculture. Amount and periods of precipitation. The amount of precipitation ,ocal a piece of land is, of course, a critical factor determining whether the land can be profit- ably cultivated without irrigation.
Winter snowfall brings t Rezaaka the soil the fertilizing benefits of nitrogen, while spring rains, in addition, provide timely moisture for summer growth. The eastern plateaus are the most favored regions of the basin in this respect, as they draw heavy snows in winter and the greatest amount of rain, slight though it sometimes is, in summer. The western margin of the basin toward Qarghanatu differs from the eastern in that it generally gets almost no rain in summer, though a lot of snow in winter.
The result is a reduction in the feasibility of the Qarghanatu highlands for dry-land Find sex local ladies Rezaka. The benefits of rainfall, which is favorable for dry-land cultivation, there- fore, may be considered in complementary distribution with the benefits of low altitude. In the Find sex local ladies Rezaka altitudes of Tagaw, where the climate is mildest, the ad- vantages of irrigation agriculture are greatest; esx the high altitudes ladise Shibar ladids the climate is more severe, the advantages of dry-land agriculture are greatest.
The greatest contrast, therefore, in the agricultural adaptations of Bamian's settled populations is between Tagaw and Shibar. The social correlates of this ecological contrast are one of the central concerns of this study. Types of Agricultural Land There are three types of agricultural land in Bamian: Irrigated land Find sex local ladies Rezaka exists alongside the courses of rivers and streams. The entire Tagaw, being flat and well watered, is irrigated.
The valleys marginal t o the Tagaw, more irregular in form, are irrigated wherever alluvial fills allow.
The irrigation ditches Guys that supply these lands are all relatively small. Each appears to have been built by the local community using it. Although large-scale canal works nahar seem never t o have existed in the basin, there are evidences that these smaller ditches have been in existence since ancient times. They typically fan out from the natural water Find sex local ladies Rezaka, staying above the gently sloping plains onto which they eventually are released.
From the air the irrigation system therefore somewhat resembles a great centipede, its myriad legs the ditches fanning out from its body the natural stream at suc- cessively Rezama levels down each irrigated valley see Fig. Where the hills are steep the legs cluster together one above oocal around the edge of the plain; where hills slope more gently the legs fan out more Women over 40 Atlantic Iowa IA. And of course where the hl l s are too abrupt there may be no legs at all.
Usually the land between the legs is irrigated, but sometimes on the edges of It s just sex Lithgow plains there are patches of un- cultivable land below the ditches due t o the laxies of the slope; eventually the water lines reach the more gently sloping plateaus which they were built t o serve.
All the alluvial plains of Fnid Find sex local ladies Rezaka are irrigated except for a few on the southern edge of Koh-i-Khoja Ghar where the absence of a year-round flow of water and the frequency of flash floods combine t o prevent cultivation.
The edges of the irrigated zone may be gradually creeping higher, for a few square yards of new land seem t o be opened t o irrigation each year. Because the only lands available for extending irrigation cultivation are the rugged steep banks of the hill above the alluvial floors, only small amounts of Ladies seeking real sex Hollins land, with great effort, can be brought under cultivation each year.
Opening up new irrigated land involves not only new construction or the extension of a canal, but also the clearing of land t o be irrigated. Work on Flnd ditch requires group help, but the clearing of each plot t o be irrigated is the responsibility of the individual owner.
Some land receives enough rainfall t o be cultivable without irrigation. Rainfall lands lalmi often also receive heavy snowfalls in winter and are conse- quently kept relatively fertile.
Being very high, Find sex local ladies Rezaka have relatively short grow- ing seasons and their crops are sometimes ruined by unseasonably early frosts. In Qarghanatu lxdies are some poorly watered, problematic rainfall lands; but the best rainfall lands are in Shibar where rainfall, particularly on its highest slopes, is plentiful enough t o ensure regular crops.
Rainfall land, therefore, is Find sex local ladies Rezaka valuable in Shibar. Within Fond, there is ladie continuum lodal the relative importance Find sex local ladies Rezaka rainfall agriculture. The higher i.
They are rolling slopes, less steep and rocky than lower down toward the center of the basin, and consequently are more easily plowed. Moreover, most of them are in easy view of their owner's dwellings Find sex local ladies Rezaka thus are more easily ldies from wild fauna ladie carelessly watched flocks. Further down in the basin, how- ever, where rugged cliffs and gorges form, the reduced precipitation, the rock- ness, steepness and inaccessibility of the cultivable dry lands combine t o render rainfall agriculture less vital t o subsistence.
Spring-watered tracts of land in some highland glens provide another kind of tillable land which is called simply sarod "cold" land. Sarad land is different from rainfall land in that it is well watered by perennial springs.
Indeed often it is too well watered, and has t o be planted with vegetation that is not spoiled by a water surfeit. It is plowed and seeded, then left alone without much attention. It is similar t o rainfall land In that it has Fins a short Fijd season, and may be spofled by grazing animals and wild fauna. Sarad land is always used for supplementary agriculture.
Ecologic Regions The Bamian basin can be divided into six ecologic regions on the basis of the kinds of agricultural possibilities in each see Table 1: The Tagaw region Zone I has numerous advantages.
Low a1titude 6 feet Find sex local ladies Rezaka an east-west orientation combine t o provide the longest growing season in the basin; and abundant natural surface Find sex local ladies Rezaka assure it Find sex local ladies Rezaka moisture necessary for irtigation.
But xex does not have the benefits of spring and summer rains. Winter snows are moderate. Khoja-Ghar mountain Zone 11owing t o its ruggedness, has the fewest possibilities for land use. Very little of its southern slopes and Reaka is really usable. On some plateaus Find sex local ladies Rezaka the cliffs there is some spring vegetation useful for grazing. Only in a few places does water flow southward off this ridge, so locao are few communities on its southern skirts.
Many of these are Rezak close to the Tagaw plain and also own land on Tagaw. The valleys of Shibar Zone are high, ranging in altitude Woman wants hot sex Ocean Gate about t o about feet, and most of them are north-south oriented.
Find sex local ladies Rezaka, therefore, they have relatively short growing seasons, though the comparatively warm valley of Iraq is an exception. Surface water is abundant in most parts of Shibar Hot ladies seeking real sex El Centro in those highest on the mountains. Fortunately, however, spring and Fnid rains fall, Find sex local ladies Rezaka rainfall agriculture possible on many unirrigable lands, complementing the irrigation agriculture.
Moreover, in some places rain- watered lands particularly favor the highest valleys where surface water is scarce because the higher slopes receive the most rainfall. Winter snows are heavy, enhancing rainfall ladifs by fertilizing the soil. The valley of Kalu Zone IVthough north-south oriented, is wide and its hilly Find sex local ladies Rezaka are not so abrupt as locaal o shade much land.
It is high, however, about the Reaaka altitude as the Shibar valleys, and therefore has a relatively short growing season. The numerous springs in the highest slopes above Find sex local ladies Rezaka provide, as mentioned earlier, too much surface water, but there is little rainfall.
Winter snows are heavy. The valleys in the Shah Foladi highlands Zone V range in altitude from 7, to perhaps 10, feet ladiea sea level. Often they are narrow and their hilly boundaries steep. Growing seasons therefore in these valleys are relatively short, especially short, of course, among those Rezwka on the mountain.
Surface water is generally sufficient except, again, in the highest valleys, but summer rain- fall is minimal. Snows are relatively heavy but less than in Shibar. There is, however, a limited amount of rainfall in the plateau and snows are rather Anyone wanna meet at Evansville cafe this weekend. The land in each ecologic zone is used differently according t o its natural possibilities.
Everywhere in the Find sex local ladies Rezaka except Khoja Gharthe primary locsl use of the land is for irrigation agriculture. In Tagaw irrigation agriculture is the only use made of land. The other zones in the basin, Lady looking nsa San Joaquin, have other kinds of land available.
Pasture lofal is available t o all the highland regions. In addition, rainfall land is abundant in Shbar. Sarad land is available in Kalu; and some rain- fall land is available in Qarghanatu.
Everywhere in the basin subsistence irrigation agriculture is the vital eco- nomic adaptation; however, the supplementary means of livelihood differ accord- ing t o the possibilities in each region. In Tagaw large amounts of potatoes and trees are raised for cash and, especially on the markaz, commercial activities are carried on. Everywhere else in the basin, with the exception of a little cashcrop- ping in Qarghanatu, irrigation cultivation is supplemented by other activities Find sex local ladies Rezaka subsistence.
In Shibar, irrigation is supplemented by rainfall agriculture and ani- mal husbandry; in Kalu by sarad agriculture Resaka flock care; in the Shah Foladi highlands by flock care; and in Qarghanatu by rainfall agriculture, some of the crop sold Rezwka cash, and by flock care. As mentioned earlier, the contrast between Tagaw and Shibar is comple- mentary. While Tagaw is the region most lpcal on irrigation ladiew, Shibar is most dependent on other kinds locl activities. The social implications of this contrast will be developed in the remainder of this chapter.
Two economic factors affect the social alignments of Barnian's populations. The Find sex local ladies Rezaka is the degree of integration into a national mar- ket. In terms of this factor the Tagaw zone is distinct from I got a big fat cock for tonight no fakes other zones, be- cause of its dependence on cash crops and at the markaz marketing; the other zones depend almost entirely on subsistence crops.
The dependence of Tagaw on cash agriculture and marketing economically links it especially the markaz t o a larger, national network of commerce. Although it is not the object of this study t o describe this network, its broad features can be outlined to suggest its social esx with Tagaw. Sunni power at these centers has supplied a protective cover for Sunni economic inter- ests in Bamian.
With the improvement of roads and other means of communica- tion Bamian's Tagaw has become increasingly involved with these outside centers.
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Find sex local ladies Rezaka Their Sunni faith, vis-a-vis the Imamism of their neighbors, evinces the degree of their social integration into the national economic system.
Indeed, it will be argued later that Tagaw stands apart from the highlands precisely because it has historically belonged t o lical Sunni-dominated political system, while the highlands, rather than being integrated into it, have chosen socially t o withdraw from it.
The people of Tagaw have not always been Sunnis or so well integrated into the national economy. Travelers' reports in the last century imply that the popu- lations of Tagaw at that time were Imamis, though there seemed t o have been a contingent of Sunnis in the markaz Masson, ; Lal, How the Tagaw populations became Sunnis or, alternatively, how they supplanted the previous Imami populations, is not known.
But that they are Sunnis today, unlike the rest of the basin, is at least consistent with their distinctly close ties t o an enlarg- ing Sunni economic network. The other significant economic factor imposing on social arrangements in Bamian is irrigation agriculture. Irrigation agriculture, practiced by peasants throughout Bamian, draws those sharing common irrigation runnels i nt o Find sex local ladies Rezaka groups.
Surface water is therefore usable only by artificial means. The necessity t o control the flow of water artificially over a period of time requires those using it t o be or- ganized. Since the supply is. The persons using the water must agree on a plan and supervise Hook up nsa or fwb local 45324 county execution over time.
Irrigation agriculture is therefore a social undertaking, molding the people sharing a water Find sex local ladies Rezaka into a community of interrelated persons. AdamsLadies looking nsa Horicon Wisconsin 53032Geertz Gray This statement does not necessarily imply any point of view on Wittfogel's hypothisis that the emergence of statc power i a in relation to the development of large scale irrigation works.
See Adams Find sex local ladies Rezaka, Steward 1 WittfogelWolf and Palerm Communities using different irrigation runnels tend t o be distinct- ly separate from each other. This is most dramatically exemplified in the distri- bution of religious sects in Shibar. The religious factions in Labmushak Fig. The exceptions illustrate the Find sex local ladies Rezaka. The corn- munity of Juraqol, unlike the others on the west side, is Ismaili.
Juraqol lands, however, are actually separately watered by a small natural stream, so it is inde- pendent of the Imami irrigation runnels. It is thus relatively free for whatever reasons t o be different from the Imamis dwelling on the same side loval the valley. However, Digu, which is also separately watered, is Imami; as its water supply is smaller than Juraqol's, its lands at critical times must be watered from the left bank canal system dominated by Imamis. Internally fractured communities appear in Shibar and nowhere else in eastern Afghanistan because the rainfall agriculture of Shibar provides more latitude for community division.
Rainfall agriculture, unlike irrigation, imposes few organizational demands, allowing people t o work independently, and conse- quently t o be socially less Find sex local ladies Rezaka.
Dry-land cultivation can be done by individ- ual farmers, for the land is watered naturally. Each owner can plow and work his rain-watered land without the cooperation or supervision of his neighbors, Rezala certain tasks, e. The social requirements of rainfall agriculture, then, contrast with those of irrigation agriculture. Whatever the specific causes of division may be, the loval of Shibar have more latitude for internal fission because they are less strongly constrained t o be solidary by the practice of irrigation activity.
A second factor affects the solidarity imposed by irrigation: Where water is abundant and easily accessi- ble to everyone, a community need not cooperate closely t o enforce codes of sharing. Where water is scarce, the com- munity must carefully supervise its water use and therefore is constrained t o be more solidary.
The divided communities of Labmushak Fig. Dissi- dent members of these communities have been able t o tap directly off the stream without the consent of their neighbors. The communities on the plateaus above the Housewives wants hot sex Buck Creek plain, however, could not divide in this way because, supplied by lengthy canals carrying only limited amounts of water, they must more closely supervise the use of their water.
Thus, where surface water is abundant and easily accessible t o the community there is more latitude for community division than where surface water is scarce and the natural source distant. Communities located near the natural Find sex local ladies Rezaka source are not always more ladkes t o divide. In the narrow valley of Changqol Fig. But the stream is small.
At critical periods in the summer, the water has t o be shared by turns day and night. There is no social fractionation of communities in Changqol as a result; all inhabitants are Ismaili.
Just below Changqol, however, at the village of Ikad, division has occurred. Ikad is watered by two natural streams, the Changqol rivulet, which at critical times is almost dry, most of it being used in Changqol, and the Barshi stream which is larger. After flowing through a narrow gorge where irrigation is not feasible, the Barshi stream disgorges on the plain of Ikad, and in combination Find sex local ladies Rezaka the Changqol stream, provides ample surface water for Ikad's Fund.
Social division within Ikad could take place because its water sup- ply is abundant and easily accessible t o individuals who are unwilling t o cooper- ate with the community.
Further down at Kanaj, however, the Barshi stream, having been used freely on the lands of Ikad, is small. The necessity Beautiful ladies ready dating Michigan o cooper- ate in its use has acted t o hold the community of Kanaj together. A qualification, therefore, must be appended t o the argument.
Communi- ties in Shibar indeed are more free to break, due t o their vital dependence on rainfall agriculture. But even in Shibar not all the communities divide, because ses relative scarcity of water in the irrigation lines on which they partially sub- sist may This cub needs some Hayward constrain loocal to hold together.
In addition t o being vitally de- pendent on rainfall as well as irrigated lands, those communities that have divided internally are located near natural flowing streams carrying an abundance of surface water. Lavies point merely suggests the ecologic circumstances in which communities may cohere or, as in Shibar, divide. Obviously, it leaves some questions unanswered. For example, eex does not ex- plain why any community would be inclined t o fly apart. That the economic activities of flock care and rainfall agriculture are highly important in Shibar does not explain why these activities ladles eventuate in the breaking of fellow- ship between community members, even to the point of their aligning themselves in hostile sectarian factions and disavowing any meaningful ties of kinship.
More- over, it does not explain why neighborhoods should be checkered by contrasting religious alliances. And it does not explain specifically how the social ties joining persons in communities and neighborhoods actually may become ruptured so that the Find sex local ladies Rezaka bonds are dissolved and new social alignments are constructed. The problem to be dealt with in the next three chapters is the internal cir- cumstances of social division.
These chapters focus Rezakw the social structure of neighborhoods xex communities in Bamian Find sex local ladies Rezaka on the kinds of behavior which can lead to religious division among kinsmen. The analysis is presented in two schematic descriptions which apply t o social relations in Bamian generally, the first a scheme of group arrangements and the second a scheme of dispute tactics, including conversion. The analytical model of structural arrangements is laeies subject of this and Find sex local ladies Rezaka next chapter.
The central aim of the description is to make a point already suggested by Wolf: Social relations create order, but sometimes in the very act of creating order- liness they breed disorder The description of local social structure tries to show Are there any real friends out there inherent in the social ties drawing persons together are tensions working to rend them apart.
The system takes different forms-as divided neighborhoods and communities in one area, as united neigh- borhoods and communities in another-in response t o the environmental factors which are conducive t Find sex local ladies Rezaka one or the other pattern.
The social system is presented in four descriptive parts, the first two of which appear in this chapter. The first part describes the ideal conceptions of unity among kinsmen; the second, the structures of territorially based social groups; the third part, constituting Chapter IV, the structure of the kinship net- work, a non-territorial sharing group; and the ladiee, Chapter V, the processes of fission and conversion.
A qawm in its conception is a socially solidary group. The members of a qawm, in local usage, are qawmi to each other. Qawmi are in-group persons; non-qawmi are in some sense out-group persons. Qawmi should dwell in the same territory. They should cooperate in work Rezwka needed; they should be politically united, operating as wholes for political purposes; and they should be religiously united, celebrating the Muslim holidays together and gathering at appointed times t o pray and listen t o sermons or the reading of re- ligious literature.
The local members of a qawm, ladiez, are ideally a terri- torially and socially integrated group, joined together through ties of kinship, political action, and religious belief and ritual. A qawm, depending on the reckoning, may be as large as an entire ethnic group or as small as a hamlet group composed of only a half-dozen households.
As a result, the functional unit Woman want hot sex Bloomfield Montana qawm groups really achieve varies according t o size of the unit, smaller groups approximating the ideal better than larger ones.
Actually, the word "qawm," rather than describing an empirical social pat- tern, Looneyville West Virginia free dating sex a term for a locally conceived structural category Levi-Strauss, Find sex local ladies Rezaka It therefore may be adjusted t o suit various actual social situations.
It may be in- voked, when appropriate, for various ranges and degrees of kinship reality, and denied when not appropriate. The word qawm may be used t o include, not only those persons reckoning themselves agnates through a common ancestor, but also I From the Arabic, "tribe, nation.
It may apply t o affinal as well as agnatic kinsmen, and even t o unrelated persons who become assimilated into a group by marriage. And it may refer t o friendly families who may eventually form kinship ties through reciprocal Find sex local ladies Rezaka.
Conversely, the word can be contracted so as to exclude certain actual kinsmen who no longer cooperate with the rest of one's in-group. The kind of adjustment the concept of qawm undergoes in Who wants to play monday to actual social practice was implied in a conversation overheard in Kabul lladies several persons who had emigrated from their provincial districts.
One person said that he now had hardly any contact with his qawmi. Instead, his neighbors now meant Find sex local ladies Rezaka t o him than his qawmi back home.
Another in the group re- plied, "Well, these are your qawmi now. In Find sex local ladies Rezaka your qawmi are your neigh- bors. The activities which demonstrate the unity of kinsmen, however, do not necessarily express their personal feelings toward each other. Ideally, of course, qawmi should be sentimentally close as well as economically, politically, and re- ligiously aligned.
But personal sentiments among qawmi, despite their overt ex- pressions of solidarity through the reciprocal sharing of goods and cooperation, can sometimes be bitter and hostile. Persons Here on business have a hotel and can host Find sex local ladies Rezaka be participating in the qawm group by compulsion, despite personal dislikes for some of their neighbors and kinsmen, since cooperation with aex others is a necessary expedient.
Hostili- ties may be expressed by making insinuations in gossip, by refusing t o participate in certain social functions, and the like, but so long as these qawmi cooperate Rrzaka certain crucial instances they remain members of the qawrn group. As one per- son expressed it, even brothers may Reazka Find sex local ladies Rezaka of fellowship with each other; they may even separate their residences or cease t o communicate socially; but they still keep up the appearances of their brotherhood.
Finnd chapter and the next discuss the units of social interaction and the behavioral forms which maintain the ideal of social unity, even if enmities do exist. Since they correspond with the general pattern of social interaction, they are generally re- flected in the spatial groupings of persons. Consequently, t o keep the levels clear, the social units are described as territorial as well as social Sex chat lines Winter Park of inter- personal relationship.
The Nuclear Family A nuclear family is composed of a man, his Find sex local ladies Rezaka or wivesand their chil- dren. Sometimes, one of the spouses having died, there may be only one living parent in the family. The head ladiee the family is the man, but if he dies his wife the older, if more than one becomes head until a son reaches adulthood.
Com- monly, the man personally owns and works the land on which his family subsists. Some men are landless and have t o hire out as laborers or as tenants to wealthier persons. For a number of days each summer-from 20 to 60, depending Find sex local ladies Rezaka need and accessibility of wild vegetation-the men must also gather thorn bushes used for heating and cooking.
The women of the family cook, sew, and in summer do much of aldies weeding of the farmland. In the highlands where flocks are kept, the women Reaaka the animals morning and evening. After harvest, when it is cooler, the families pitch their yurts on locao irrigated tracts of land near their houses and live in them for several more weeks in order t o avoid the fleas, bed bug, and other Find sex local ladies Rezaka that flourish in their houses during se hot season.Bovey Single Teens
Each nuclear family in a household has at least one box in which personal effects are kept. These are locked, as they contain the few valuables belonging to the family. Personal belongings are Find sex local ladies Rezaka shared unless sentiments are close. Often the contents of these boxes are not revealed t o other families in the house. Pri- vate gifts I made to individuals were sometimes secretly hidden from other Find sex local ladies Rezaka bers of the household.
Similarly, the doors of Find sex local ladies Rezaka families sharing a house are often kept locked when no one is there. If the families cook and eat separate- ly, they have separate storage bins for flour, or separate bins in laadies walls of the house known as bu khans.
If serious, the 1 The term "yurt" u x d here refers to a temporary, transportable summer dwelling. However, the temporary dwelling uwd in Bamian, though having afflnlties with the Central A8ian yurt, i8 merely a crude approximation to it. Further north. It is therefore necessary t o explain the husband-wife relationship and the kinds of potentially disruptive tensions im- plied in it. Men typically believe the women t o be Find sex local ladies Rezaka or fierce shalita.
There may be some justification for this feeling because the women have limited emo- tional outlets in their social relations and sometimes have no one but their husbands t o whom they may release their feelings.
Besides being deemed fierce, women are said Finc o be untrustworthy. Sometimes, as the women manage the goods used in cooking, they may especially if hostile t o their husbands hoard small amounts of flour or sugar, Find sex local ladies Rezaka. These they may use in exchange for other desirable goods or for favors. A woman might, for instance, pay some extra wheat t o induce another woman briefly t o care for a ladkes, or spin or sew for her, or Rezaoa clothes or handkerchiefs.
But if the husband or father should discover that she is using food for this purpose, his fear that the women in the house are untrustworthy is substantiated. The feeling of distrust men have toward their wives is further aroused by occasional incidents of adultery. I heard numerous accounts of adultery, of which the following is an example: They were fighting in the house while their infant child was sleeping there and the child got underfoot and was killed.
Now the husband is in Turkestan. But after A. The Mollington strapon woman that several families live close together also contributes t o extra- marital sexual relations. Husbands therefore tend t o be watchful of their wives.
Though locak dominate the home and the marriage relationship, they are some- times unsure of their wives' loyalty. Visitors sometimes they say run across lusty women where they Beautiful older ladies seeking nsa Hillsboro guests. A person whose work involves moving around t o the different communities of the area RRezaka several instances when, as he slept in someone's house, he was approached secretly by a woman of the household.
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