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Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Identifying contact with the Americas: Polynesians in America: Pre-Columbian Contacts with the New World.

Andrew Westhill islander looking for a ltr. Alice Storey. This chapter describes the elements of successful commensal models and examines how these models may pertain to finding evidence for prehis- toric contact between Polynesia and the Americas. Setting out individual components lkoking aid in the identification of new candidate organisms and the collection of data sets appropriate for testing hypotheses of contact between Polynesia and the Americas.

In examining the development and utility of commensal models we will focus the bulk of our discussion on those plants, animals, and viruses that have either been identified as evidence for contact or have islandder potential to in the future. Is,ander chapter will serve to clarify the current state of knowledge regarding organisms with real potential for Westhill islander looking for a ltr transference between Polynesia and the Americas as well as providing the means by which others may be reason- ably excluded.

Commensal Models Fundamentally a commensal model is based on evidence of biological variation of a particular species closely associated with humans, which can be used as a proxy for tracking the movement of those humans across geographic space Matisoo-Smith ; Matisoo-Smith and Robins Smithville OH milf personals term commensal derives from the Latin commensalis: The level of domestication of plants and particularly of animals was unlikely to have been as carefully controlled Baldwin as species in continental settings and was prob- ably both island- and species-specific.

As defined above, the term commensal is most literally applied when dealing with domestic Westhill islander looking for a ltr and plant spe- cies, but commensal-based models can also be applied to microorganisms and other microscopic Westhill islander looking for a ltr associated with humans. With respect to microscopic species, biological interactions can be mutualistic e. Regardless of species, commensal models employ a phylogenetic or population genetic approach, whereby genetic patterns are used to determine the evolutionary relationships between commensal species and, by proxy, to track the movement of the humans who transported them.

The integration of these genetic patterns with spa- tial data is termed phylogeography.

Organisms that cannot disperse naturally but co-occur in Pacific island archaeological sites with evidence for human activity or settlement are as- sumed to have been introduced to island environments by humans. In the case of microorganisms and plants that are not preserved in the archaeo- logical record, prehistoric distributions must be inferred or assumed based on data from extant populations, and to allow for critical assessment, this must be explicitly stated in the Westhill islander looking for a ltr models.

Research on commensal animals in the Pacific has Adult phone personals Morrisville summarized by Matisoo-Smith Commensal models have also been extended to studies of Oceanic plants, including bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria Clarke et al.

Pathogens have also been recently added to the pantheon of commensals that have been used to reconstruct human migrations and Westhill islander looking for a ltr. In the Pacific these include malarial parasites Plasmodium falci- parum Lum et al.

Westhill islander looking for a ltr

For a review of viruses Westhill islander looking for a ltr what they contribute to the reconstruction of Pacific settlement, see Czarnecki et al. When feasible, ancient DNA obtained from archaeological remains is the preferred unit of study because it allows researchers to reconstruct evolutionary relationships that are lookung relevant. Through the di- rect dating of specimens or use of samples having unambiguous associa- tions with archaeologically defined time periods, ancient DNA provides a glimpse of prehistoric genetic signatures.

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Phylogenetic relationships recon- structed using DNA sequences obtained from extant Westhill islander looking for a ltr are often hindered by a multitude of processes postdating the archaeological events of interest.

Lady wants sex Deweese, most studies of pathogens and plants have been generated through the analysis of modern DNA and, therefore, a good understanding of the contemporary interactions that may have obscured ancient patterns is required.

In examining potential interactions between Polynesians and American Indians a very careful distinction must be made between contacts that occurred in prehistory and those that occurred as a result of historic-period movements of crops, animals, and people.

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In addi- tion to historical introductions of European commensals, early exploration, trade, colonial expansion, vor the slave trade introduced African, Southeast Asian, islandef Polynesian people to the Americas, all of whom potentially brought their own plants, Westhill islander looking for a ltr, and microorganisms.

Many of these commensals would have been integrated into American Indian economic and social systems at an early date, and this may hinder lookint identification as a post—A. Each commensal species has its own individual advantages and limita- tions for the construction of Westhill islander looking for a ltr. In addition, different commensal species provide an opportunity to explore different aspects of human settle- ment behavior and subsequent interaction.

Comparison of the patterns of the various commensal species then allows for a much more complete understanding of the complexities of prehistoric human behavior.

Com- mensal studies can contribute key information where studies of human genetic variation alone are not sufficient to address questions of migration and Naughty reviews South Bend Indiana.

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In Westhill islander looking for a ltr to make connections from simple DNA sequence variation and inferred phylogenetic relationships to human behavior, several factors must be carefully considered, including: The biology of isander organism.

Considerations include dispersal mechanisms, adaptability, reproductive behavior and the level of care that must be provided by humans for survival of commensals in new environments.

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Human choice. In most cases humans will deliberately transport only species of particular importance to them. The role of a species in the lives of particular people will be specific to their needs at the time and may influence how each species is treated, used, Westhill islander looking for a ltr traded.

This does not, of course, include microorganisms such as viruses or gut flora.

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Deposition of remains and taphonomy. Deposition of animal remains in middens is most likely to result in later recovery by archaeologists. The differential treatment of specific animals or scavenging in middens by pigs Places to find bbw women in leeds for free dogs may affect the apparent or perceived distribution of specific species in prehistory. For plant species, deposition in very dry environments often provides the best opportunities for recovery by archaeologists.

Deposition in Westhkll, or deposits that become waterlogged, may provide Westhill islander looking for a ltr preservation at the macroscopic level, but WWesthill recovery of ancient DNA is less likely. This chapter will focus on potential sources of information for identify- ing interaction provided by commensals that were, or islanderr least had the po- tential to be, distributed prehistorically in the Pacific and the Americas.

In this pursuit we will briefly discuss the two commensal animals that, to date, have been identified prehistorically in both the Pacific and the Americas, the chicken and the dog. Plants that were or may have been shared pre- historically include sweet Westhill islander looking for a ltr or kumara Ipomoea batatasbottle gourd Lagenaria lyrcoconut Cocos nuciferaand possibly soapberry Sapin- dus saponaria and Polynesian tomato Solanum repandum.

Two viruses also have potential to provide evidence for longer-term prehistoric contact: Book 1. In regions where they are to be employed as proxies for tracking human mobility, commensals must be unable to disperse independently outside their natu- ral range.

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By targeting commensals outside of their natural range, this forr plication can ptr most cases be avoided. This includes the cultural concepts of land use Kirch While the intentional transport of rats is debated Anderson b; Matisoo-Smiththe general consensus amongst prehistorians is that at least dogs, pigs, and chickens were deliberately transported by humans Kirch a; Spriggs This is not to say that humans did ltg sometimes acciden- tally transport animals; the presence of geckos and skinks on Pacific islands was likely due lookiing unintentional introductions Kirch a; White In examining the possibility of natural dispersal of the domestic chicken, understanding its dispersal abilities and those of its ancestor, Westhill islander looking for a ltr Red Junglefowl, is important.

Many researchers agree that Red Junglefowl are the wild ancestor from which modern chickens were domesticated Akishinonomiya et al.

Dispersed naturally throughout a large portion of Southeast Asia, these birds Westhill islander looking for a ltr not native to the Pacific islands. Wild Red Junglefowl tend to have relatively small home ranges and are Horny cocksucer here recorded as being a migratory species Johnsgard In addition, chickens are not well adapted to wet conditions.

It has lookinh observed that feral chickens in Fiji are easier to catch after periods of heavy Book 1. Given these observations, it is unlikely that natural dispersal of chickens can account for their presence in the archaeological deposits of prehistoric Pacific islands Storey et al.

Dogs are at least as widely dispersed around the globe as Massage happy end in Villeneuve-La-Garenne and are thought to be the first domesticated animal Clutton-Brock They Westhill islander looking for a ltr present prehistorically in the New World Schwartz and the Pacific, though the date of their introduction Westhill islander looking for a ltr the Pacific is debated Hudson ; Matisoo-Smith; Titcomb and Pukui While dogs Westhil swim, the wide dispersal of domestic dogs and their coeval inclusion in archaeological contexts with evidence for human settlement suggests their spread in the Pacific was human-mediated.

Despite this, dogs were not introduced to all islands and were not necessarily available for transport from some locations, such as Easter Island, an area which has been identified as having potential for pre-Columbian contact with ffor Americas. Pacific plant species have far otr diverse origins than animal species, with approximately forty-nine of the introduced species coming from a wide range of continental domestication centers ranging from Indo- Malaysia to Africa.

Of introduced Polynesian plants, eleven are believed to come from Melanesia excluding Fijinine from Fiji Whistler Twenty-one plant species made it to Western Polynesia but were not successfully transported to Eastern Polynesia Whistler Of those that were suc- cessfully carried to Eastern Polynesia, most were seedless or vegetatively propagated and, in most cases, could only have been maintained by hu- mans Yen Whistler He concluded that after A.

A great deal of attention has been focused on the potential of Hung malesexiii sure dam reaal nsa plants found in both Westhill islander looking for a ltr and the Americas to disperse on ocean cur- rents and propagate on foreign shores.

Westhill islander looking for a ltr exist both for Ward and Brookfield and against Dennis Westhill islander looking for a ltr Gunn the ability of the coconut to survive at sea and successfully germinate upon washing up on a new beachfront. It has been suggested that there is a difference in the morphology of wild and domestic coconut Massage needed tonight affects their ability to disperse naturally.

Humans likely select coconut varieties with a high water Book Westyill. While these domestic forms are more precocious germi- nators, the high water content is likely to inhibit long-distance dispersal over water Zizumbo-Villarreal and Quero Since the dispersal of domestic coconuts is more likely to be affiliated with voyages of contact, it is these varieties that hold the greatest promise for commensal studies.

The dispersal of bottle gourd has similarly been investigated for self dispersal and specifically with regard to its viability after long periods of floating at sea.

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It has been argued that wild bottle gourd has a thin exocarp rind that is not suitable lyr dispersal by sea Erickson et al. Its utility as a storage vessel made bottle gourd a good candidate for purposeful transport into Oceania, particularly in Polynesia where the absence of pottery would make the storage capacities of the rind very attractive.

Oral Westhill islander looking for a ltr, comparative linguistics, its importance as a crop, and climatic limitations support the assertion that its transport was purposeful and human-medi- ated, at least within Eastern Polynesia Clarke et al. Montenegro et al. Alternatively, Montenegro et al.

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However, two significant observations are inconsistent with natural dispersal, and neither of these are adequately dealt with by Montenegro et al. The second is the apparent inability of sweet potato to survive outside of cultivation; it is difficult to envisage a realistic scenario in which viable tubers or seeds are collected from a beach and the species immediately incorporated into a Polynesian agricultural system.

The use of pathogenic microorganisms for developing commensal models necessitates that they have very specific dispersal patterns. Ideally a pathogen should be vertically transmitted, meaning that Westhill islander looking for a ltr virus or Book 1. However, in some limited cases horizontally transmitted pathogens can also be used to trace migration and interaction. In this type of spread, an organism or virus can be passed by direct or indirect contact between in- dividuals, resulting in much more rapid pathogen population dynamics and more recent Westhill islander looking for a ltr times.

HLTV-1 generally results in sub-clinical immunosuppression that is not a problem for carriers unless they also have another condition such as AIDS.

As oloking result, it has persisted in modern populations, with 15 to 20 dor individuals infected world- wide Carneiro-Proietti et al. The JC Virus, named using Totally free bi ladies initials of the first diagnosed patient, has an unclear mode of transmission.

It may be passed through contact with urine and thus horizontally transmitted but seems to be stable within fami- lies or, at very least, requires cohabitation.